Pınar Waters,Mineral Water,plastic bottle,practical bottle cap,glass bottle,polycarbonate bottleWater FormationMineral Water Compared to natural waters,it is the one with the amount of dissolved matter is over a certain extent or temperature and radioactivity is over the natural limits.

Water Formation

Water in Nature

Even if gets polluted by the waste carried in streams and turns saline in the oceans, water in nature always become clean and fresh when evaporated into the atmosphere. However, no water is chemically pure including the rain water. It absorbs the gases in the air and sulphuric acid coming out of the burning coal especially in densely populated areas. There are no completely pure water in nature and taking the unwanted chemicals out of water is a hard process even for the laboratories.

Water in nature is examined under 4 groups according to their sources:

1. Meteoric Water (Rain and snow water): It is the most pure of present water types, nevertheless it can carry some inorganic and organic matter as it contains all the gases in the air.

2. Groundwater and Spring Water: As a result of dissolving the soil layers on location and as passes through, it contains the dissolved material related to type of the layers.

3. Surface Water (River, lake, dam and sea waters): Having an open surface, it is prone to take in foreign organic materials. On the other hand, because it is in contact with air it has low carbonate hardness.

4. Mineral Water: Compared to natural waters, it is the one with the amount of dissolved matter is over a certain extent or temperature and radioactivity is over the natural limits.

Source : Suder

How does Water Form?

Water cycle describes the presence and movement of water on the earth surface, under the ground and in the atmosphere. Water on earth is always on the move; from ice to liquid, liquid to vapour and again from vapour to liquid, this water movement has continuity. Water cycle has been going on for millions of years and the existence of life depends on it. A life without water would be unbearable.

A short summary of the water cycle

There is no start for the water cycle, however if we explain by starting from the oceans; activating the water cycle, the sun heats up the water in the oceans, the heated water evaporates into the atmosphere.

Rising air currents carry the water vapour higher in the atmosphere; cooler air which is present up there causes condensation in the clouds. Air currents move the clouds around the Earth; coming together cloud particles grow and come down from the sky as rain precipitation.

Some precipitations come back to earth as snow and might settle down as ice peaks and glaciers which can stay as frozen water bodies for thousands of years. In warm climates when the spring comes, snow blankets occasionally melt down and melt water, melt snow starts flowing on the earth’s surface, sometimes causing floods. Most of the rain falls over the oceans or the land and starts flowing as runoff with the gravitational effect. Some part of the runoff mixes into the streams in valleys and move towards the oceans from there through the rivers.

Surface runoff and groundwater sources meet at lakes and rivers as fresh water. Not all surface flow reach the rivers. Most of the flow seeps underground. Some of this water stay close to surface and joins the water bodies (and the ocean) at the surface via groundwater discharge. Some groundwater emerges as fresh water sources through the openings they find at the surface. Shallow groundwater is consumed by plant roots and goes back to the atmosphere from the leaves by transpiration. Most of the seeping waters go deeper and feed the aquifers (saturated underground material) which can hold great amounts of fresh water for a very long time. In time these waters, too, start moving and some of it joins the oceans where the water cycle starts and finishes.

Source : Suder

How does the groundwater form?

Groundwater is formed by the filling* of the gaps in porous beds (sandstone, conglomerate) or fractured, fissured (limestone) rocks with the waters seeping down from the surface. Collecting the water inside, these types of rocks are called “aquifers”. In order for these waters to form, porous rocks/beds need to be outcropping (having a connection with the surface). Otherwise there cannot be any groundwater for the water cannot creep underground.

Groundwater discharge: Underground water movement

You see water all around every day as lakes, rivers, ice, rain and snow. Apart from that there is a great amount of water moving underground, that we do not see. Groundwater is the water source, which aids the flow of many streams. Humans have been using groundwater for years and it is still being used today for drinking, using and irrigation to a great extent. Life on earth depends on groundwater as much as the surface water.

Groundwater flowing under the ground

Falling onto the land, some parts of the precipitation join the groundwater by seeping down. Moving close to the surface one part of this water quickly flows back to the river basins, however a greater part carries on going deeper into the ground due to the gravitational effect.

As shown in the graph, the direction and velocity of the groundwater movement depend on various properties of underground aquifers and the limiting beds (layers through which the water movement is very hard). Groundwater movement depends on the permeability (whether the water movement is easy or not) and porosity (the amount of gaps in the material) of the underground rocks. If a rock allows free water movement then groundwater can travel great distances for days.

Source : Suder

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